With the objective of freeing Italy
from Austria's yoke and of consecrating the great principle of Italian
nationality, an offensive and defensive treaty of alliance shall be concluded
between the Emperor of the French and the King of Sardinia.
As soon as war shall have been declared
between Sardinia and Austria, France would immediately intervene by sending
an army corps to Spezia and one or two divisions to Genoa, which, together
with the Sardinian Army, would advance against the Austrian forces concentrated
along the Po and the Ticino.
The military forces of the allies
in Italy should be rapidly increased to 300,000 men, that is to say, 200,000
French and 100,000 Sardinian and Italian.
A naval fleet in the Adriatic
would support the operations of the armies on land.
The preparations to be made, the
immediate action to be taken, shall be concerted in advance between France
and Sardinia. To this effect, the Emperor shall decide if he wants to send
an officer who enjoys his entire confidence to Turin, or if he believes
it preferable that General La Marmora go to Paris.
The military convention, to be signed
following these preliminary agreements, shall regulate the manner in which
the two Nations shall meet the expenses of the war and the use of resources
which the successively occupied countries could furnish.
France shall assist Sardinia in
obtaining a loan at Paris.
The successively occupied Italian
provinces shall be declared in a state of siege and submitted to military
authority. The administration shall be entrusted to employees nominated
by the King of Sardinia. An immediate attempt shall be made either through
recruitment or through an appeal to volunteers, to enlist all the active
forces in the country,
The recruits and the volunteers
shall be incorporated in the Sardinian Army.
The purpose of the war being the
complete deliverance of Italy, it shall be pursued until this purpose should
At the peace, the Kingdom of Upper
Italy shall be created. It shall include, in addition to the areas already
a part of the Kingdom of Sardinia:
The Austrian provinces in Italy;
The Duchies of Parma and of
The Papal States this side of
The conduct of the Grand Duke of
Tuscany and of the King of Naples toward the allies and the political events
caused by the war shall determine the fate of these States at the peace.
It is, however, established
in principle that the Holy See shall remain in Rome, and that the Pope
shall continue to exercise sovereign authority therein, as well as in the
territory which shall be annexed thereto; and that the portion of Italy
not included in the Kingdom of Upper Italy shall be divided into two states.
The diverse Italian States shall
constitute a confederation.
It shall remain to be seen if, in
the event that the throne of Tuscany should become vacant, it could not
be disposed of in favor of the Duke of Parma.
Since the war is being fought in
defense of the great principle of nationalities, the population of Savoy
could be reunited with France. Sardinia shall retain, however, the fortress
of Esseillon, located at the foot of Mount Cenis.
The nationality of the inhabitants
of the County of Nice being in doubt, the question as regards them is reserved.
If between now and the coming
spring no occasion arises which leads to war with Austria, the Government
of Sardinia shall not further oppose an appeal to it by the populations
of Massa and of Carrara, who have long been subjected to the most oppressive
regime, to obtain aid and protection. It shall permit the inhabitants of
these districts to demand, in a formal petition, the annexation of these
two small Duchies to Sardinia.
King Victor Emmanuel, without
granting this wish, will place them under his protection by addressing
a forceful and menacing remonstrance to the Duke of Modena.
The question thus precipitated,
not only with Modena, but also with Austria, her natural protector, would
necessarily lead to a declaration of war. If need be, Sardinia could occupy
Massa and Carrara.
Nigra to Cavour
Paris, Hotel du Louvre, 31 August 1858.
My dear Count,
... At 9:30 a.m., I was presented to His Majesty,...
The Emperor first looked over the summary of what
had been agreed to at Plombiéres, which Your Excellency had sent
to him... The Emperor then said to me that, since these were not formal
treaty stipulations, the comments he had made were not to the point, and
he charged me with writing to Your Excellency to assure you that, for his
part, the summary which he held in his hand was an exact and complete expression
of the agreement reached at Plombiéres.