Cavour's Version of the Plombières Agreement Sent to Napoleon III

Cavour to Napoleon III (3 August 1858)
     With the objective of freeing Italy from Austria's yoke and of consecrating the great principle of Italian nationality, an offensive and defensive treaty of alliance shall be concluded between the Emperor of the French and the King of Sardinia.


     As soon as war shall have been declared between Sardinia and Austria, France would immediately intervene by sending an army corps to Spezia and one or two divisions to Genoa, which, together with the Sardinian Army, would advance against the Austrian forces concentrated along the Po and the Ticino.
     The military forces of the allies in Italy should be rapidly increased to 300,000 men, that is to say, 200,000 French and 100,000 Sardinian and Italian.
     A naval fleet in the Adriatic would support the operations of the armies on land.


     The preparations to be made, the immediate action to be taken, shall be concerted in advance between France and Sardinia. To this effect, the Emperor shall decide if he wants to send an officer who enjoys his entire confidence to Turin, or if he believes it preferable that General La Marmora go to Paris.


     The military convention, to be signed following these preliminary agreements, shall regulate the manner in which the two Nations shall meet the expenses of the war and the use of resources which the successively occupied countries could furnish.


     France shall assist Sardinia in obtaining a loan at Paris.


     The successively occupied Italian provinces shall be declared in a state of siege and submitted to military authority. The administration shall be entrusted to employees nominated by the King of Sardinia. An immediate attempt shall be made either through recruitment or through an appeal to volunteers, to enlist all the active forces in the country,
     The recruits and the volunteers shall be incorporated in the Sardinian Army.


     The purpose of the war being the complete deliverance of Italy, it shall be pursued until this purpose should be achieved.


     At the peace, the Kingdom of Upper Italy shall be created. It shall include, in addition to the areas already a part of the Kingdom of Sardinia:
     The Austrian provinces in Italy;
     The Duchies of Parma and of Modena;
     The Papal States this side of the Appennines.


     The conduct of the Grand Duke of Tuscany and of the King of Naples toward the allies and the political events caused by the war shall determine the fate of these States at the peace.
     It is, however, established in principle that the Holy See shall remain in Rome, and that the Pope shall continue to exercise sovereign authority therein, as well as in the territory which shall be annexed thereto; and that the portion of Italy not included in the Kingdom of Upper Italy shall be divided into two states.


     The diverse Italian States shall constitute a confederation.


     It shall remain to be seen if, in the event that the throne of Tuscany should become vacant, it could not be disposed of in favor of the Duke of Parma.


     Since the war is being fought in defense of the great principle of nationalities, the population of Savoy could be reunited with France. Sardinia shall retain, however, the fortress of Esseillon, located at the foot of Mount Cenis.
    The  nationality of the inhabitants of the County of Nice being in doubt, the question as regards them is reserved.

     If between now and the coming spring no occasion arises which leads to war with Austria, the Government of Sardinia shall not further oppose an appeal to it by the populations of Massa and of Carrara, who have long been subjected to the most oppressive regime, to obtain aid and protection. It shall permit the inhabitants of these districts to demand, in a formal petition, the annexation of these two small Duchies to Sardinia.
     King Victor Emmanuel, without granting this wish, will place them under his protection by addressing a forceful and menacing remonstrance to the Duke of Modena.
     The question thus precipitated, not only with Modena, but also with Austria, her natural protector, would necessarily lead to a declaration of war. If need be, Sardinia could occupy Massa and Carrara.


Napoleon's Response

 Nigra to Cavour
 Paris, Hotel du Louvre, 31 August 1858. 
    My dear Count,
 ... At 9:30 a.m., I was presented to His Majesty,...
 The Emperor first looked over the summary of what had been agreed to at Plombiéres, which Your Excellency had sent to him... The Emperor then said to me that, since these were not formal treaty stipulations, the comments he had made were not to the point, and he charged me with writing to Your Excellency to assure you that, for his part, the summary which he held in his hand was an exact and complete expression of the agreement reached at Plombiéres.
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