Protocol Concluded by Italy, Germany, and Japan, at Rome,
November 6, 1937
|Hitler's support of Italy during the Ethiopean War was followed by their joint assistance to Gen. Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War, which erupted on July 17, 1936. Their growing community of interest is seen in Italy's adhesion to the Anti-Comintern Pact. The Comintern, established by V.I. Lenin in 1919 was designed to sponsor and direct communist parties outside of the Soviet Union. As Mussolini had long fought against the Communist Party of Italy, it was natural for him to join this pact. Note that this pact is not directed at the Soviet Union. Its existence would become an embarrassment when Hitler negotiated his pact of friendship and neutrality with the Soviets on August 23, 1939.|
The Italian Government, the Government of the German Reich, and the Imperial Government of Japan,
Considering that the Communist International continues constantly to imperil the civilized world in the Occident and Orient, disturbing and destroying peace and order,
Considering that only close collaboration looking to the maintenance of peace and order can limit and remove that peril,
Considering that Italy - who with the advent of the Fascist regime has with inflexible determination combated that peril and rid her territory of the Communist International - has decided to align herself against the common enemy along with Germany and Japan, who for their part are animated by like determination to defend themselves against the Communist International.
Have, in conformity with Article 2 of the Agreement against the Communist International concluded at Berlin on November 25, 1936, by Germany and Japan, agreed upon the following:
Italy becomes a party to the Agreement against the Communist International and to the Supplementary Protocol concluded on November 25, 1936, between Germany and Japan, the text of which is included in the annex to the present Protocol.
The three powers signatory to the present Protocol agree that Italy will be considered as an original signatory to the Agreement and Supplementary Protocol mentioned in the preceding article, the signing of the present Protocol being equivalent to the signature of the original text of the aforesaid Agreement and Supplementary Protocol.
The present Protocol shall constitute an integral part of the above-mentioned Agreement and Supplementary Protocol.
The present Protocol is drawn up in Italian, Japanese, and German, each text being considered authentic. It shall enter into effect on the date of signature.
In testimony whereof, etc...
The Avalon Project at the Yale Law School