Mathew B. Brady is heralded
by many as one of the most well known and popular photographers of his
time. His work with the Daguerreotype during its earliest years was
noticed by many all over the country, and he was soon hailed as one of
the leading pioneers of American Photography. Immediately Brady began
to win medals and recognition for both his photographs and studios, which
he established once he noticed the continued interest in his work.
Along with the fame came the fortune, and during the 1840's and 50's, Brady
made quite a financially successful living selling and displaying his talents.
However things weren't always grand for Brady, who throughout his entire life was plagued with a serious eye condition, hindering his eyesight substantially. But his determination would overcome that obstacle, and with a serious talent for still imaging, Brady managed to work his way to the top of his field aside from his illness. What many claim to have hindered Brady to the utmost however, was his risking business venture to cover the American Civil War of 1860-65. At the zenith of Brady's successful career, he risked his wealth, fame, and ultimately health, to photograph the popular war. His friends and family urged him not to leave his prior ventures, because they had been so successful, but he ignored them, saying that "A spirit in my feet said 'Go', and I went."1
Brady would leave, and in doing so he would accomplish more than he possibly ever imagined. Besides the many lasting memories in which he left to speak for the War, Brady made his mark as one of the leading photographic historians to ever live, and his talents for doing so have lived on in many of his works and pictures. For all his efforts, Brady is a legend in his field. The following is a representation of those efforts, a detailed analysis of what, through them, Brady was trying to illustrate about the war, and what how he wanted them to be seen by all historians to follow. It's how Brady remembered the Civil War.
|Mathew Brady, at McPherson's Woods, Gettysburg. 1863|
Very little is known about Brady's earlier years
growing up, aside from his eye condition. His fame came through his
profession, and while many who observed the Civil War sought to write about
it in text, Brady does not do this due to his inability to simply write.
So he turned to the camera, allowing the film do the talking for him.
Brady got his start in New York City, where he met another individual who
had similar interests in the art of the Daguerreotype, Samuel
Morse. Morse introduced Brady to the new form of still imaging,
and right away Brady fell in love with it. All he needed to make
himself an instant success was a camera. With the help of Morse, and other
prominent photographers of the time, including John Draper, Edward Anthony,
and Alexander Wolcott, Brady worked his way to his first success in 1844,
when the first Brady Gallery was opened. Brady's Daguerrean Miniature
Gallery was an instant hit, and many famous and influential people
came to view and buy his work due to its rising popularity.2
Brady gained his early accolades here, and began to image many famous Americans
due to the popularity he was receiving. Almost everyone who could
afford the new process came to one of his studios, and soon Brady was winning
achievement honors for his works in the field.
The demand to be photographed by Brady became so apparent, that in 1850 he published another famous work, entitled the Gallery of Illustrious Americans. In that gallery, Brady published 12 images of famous Americans including Zachary Taylor, John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster, John James Audubon, Millard Filmore, Winfield Scott, and John C. Frémont, after commissioning Francis D'Avignon to make from his daguerreotype's a series of new lithographs.3 These images were what further helped along Brady's galleries, as well as his fortunes. His images of famous people were popular to all classes; from the elite's' among him to the lower classes who could hang a picture of their president or senator upon their wall. They worked well for Brady financially, who benefited from their profits, and it worked well for his subject, who gained significant amounts of popularity by having their images frozen by this new, and innovative science called photography. Either way, Brady was painting history by imaging history's most famous people.
|Early Daguerrean image, taken by Brady. (1844?)
For larger image, click picture
James Buchanan, three-quarter length.
Many of Brady's earliest photographs were of prominent
Americans, plus many individuals who may have not held similar positions
of respectability, whom ultimately helped to add a certain element of reality
within his work. He would take single image lithographs of ordinary
people as well, concentrating on their positioning within the frame, and
their motions relative to their function and stature. For example,
images of generals would have hands placed inside their coats, to illustrate
their status. (Sherman)
With the Illustrious American's, Brady concentrated on capturing the grandeur
which was attached to those individuals. Many of their images are
shown in a clear, standing fashion, with the image representing wealth
and power in what they are wearing, and facial expressions. Many
of his images, such as that of Tom
Thumb and The
Hinckley Family represent simple, honest images.5
Their quality is undoubtedly less advanced than many of his later images,
including the ones of the war, but the art form had been mastered well
enough before they had been taken. (They had been taken in the early
to mid-1940's, only five years after the entire process was invented).
Brady photographed these images early on to gain experience in the field,
as well as to create a portfolio of images and collages to submit to investors
who would eventually help him create his galleries and studios.
With these early images, It is essential to believe that here Brady gained a particular eye for both reality and naturalism, which can be attributed to many of his images depicting the war. Along with an image of an individual who holds no status, Brady had to include his own vision of how that individual was to be seen. that is, the art of taking the picture had already been 'perfected.' He was no longer imaging just to image. Like many others of the era, he had moved into the realm of the visual art form, and how he wanted his pictures to be seen. This can be accredited to his success as a photographer and his talents in the field. When the war broke out, he saw the opportunity not to just take pictures of what was going on, but to produce a natural image of reality. This relates his earlier images to the pictures of the war, and separates them from his advanced collections, like Illustrious Americans.
After Brady's success abroad, he returned home with a new outlook on the photographic world. Alexander Gardener, a Scottish born photographer who held similar interests in the art, helped introduce and 'modernize' Brady's collections. The new wet-plate style of producing images was now taking over the Daguerrean Era, and many of the old picture taking practices were now being left behind in favor of this new and unique process.
"The wet-plate process was revolutionary in that it could produce a good glass-plate negative from which an unlimited number of paper prints could be made. the process had been made possible by the discovery of a new compound called collodion.....The plate had to be exposed in the camera and then developed in less than an hour while still wet or damp or else its sensitivity was lost (hence the name wet-plate, which is given to the collodion process)."6
The wet-plate process would prove to be the 'wave
of the future,' one that Brady might have fell behind in if it had not
been for such companions as Gardener and others.
1851 was also a good year for Brady outside of his career. His marriage to Juliette Handy Brady would take place presumably prior to his success at the Crystal Palace, and would last for forty, long years. Along with that marriage would come one of his most memorable photographs. The image shows Brady, Juliette, and another woman identified as Mrs. Haggerty, presumably Juliette's sister. This image shows much of what made many of Brady's earliest photographs so popular among his followers; specific lighting, a balanced effect between the the positioning of the three individuals, and the naturalism shown in their faces.7 These attributes were placed upon many of his works as well, especially throughout the war. While many of the era were content with simply making the images appear, Brady was concerned with using the photograph as a form of art, and a way of expressing ones thoughts. His images were his stories, his thoughts, and ultimately his view on history.
unwilling to abandon any artistic ground to the process of inferior work,
I have no fear in appealing to an enlightened public as to their choice....I
wish to vindicate true art, and leave the community to decide whether it
is best to encourage real excellence or its opposite; to preserve and perfect
an art, or permit it to degenerate by inferiority of materials which must
correspond with the meanness of the price."
Mathew Brady, c. 1863?
In the years leading up to the start of the Civil
War, Mathew Brady would find himself amidst some unsuspecting difficulties.
Along with the advent of the newer technological advances in the art of
photography, such as the wet-plate process, and the Carte-de-Viste, Brady
also encountered strong levels of competition due to the newfound popularity
in the field. Small-scale dealers were beginning to sell their own
daguerreotypes and pictures at half the price as Brady's own collection,
and he was losing both capital and potential buyers. The collodian
wet-plate process was now the new wave of the photographic future, because
of its cheap accessibility and superiority over the earlier daguerreotype
processes. For the first time in his career, Brady was finding competition
in the field so many believed him to have perfected. But was he in serious
trouble? Roy Meredith, author of The World of Mathew Brady,
says that Brady's fame was actually rising:
"Returning to America with Alexander Gardener, a Scottish chemist and photographer, Brady introduced the new [wet-plate] process into his galleries, which increased his output enormously. Before long his galleries would be turning out more than thirty thousand portraits yearly, ranging in price from about $5 to $150. Brady was by now a comparatively wealthy man; he had become a fad."8
Meredith argues here that many of Brady's imperial prints were helping to bring in the most money, both for their popularity and rarity as well. People were willing to buy, if the could afford to do so, a framed image of a national leader, or famous American individual, and because of this, Brady survived the sudden interest explosion in the field. His innate talents behind the camera allowed him to quickly master and conform to the new processes, and along with help from other influential photographers, Brady would make an even larger name for himself in the very last stages of the pre Civil War era.
Alexander Gardener was a key instrument in Brady's success after the daguerrean era came to a close. In 1858, Brady establish another gallery in Washington, DC, and he put Gardener as its manager. There, the two of them would establish one of Brady's more popular galleries, and perfect the Carte-de-Viste process as well. This process was the newest and more favorable way of imaging, because it called for the usage of four lenses instead of one, which ultimately produced four images on one sheet of glass. How did this process benefit Brady? Well, when the accessibility to use the Carte-de-Viste was found, he was able to produce many copies of one image which helped to spread his popularity. More than one person could own a single image. This process would be used throughout the war, and into the years following.
One of Brady's most famous images that utilizes the Carte-de-Viste is that of Edwin Booth and his daughter, Edwina. (image) Booth, whose name was tragically popularized by his infamous brother John Wilkes, was a famous actor of the stage and had earned the reputation as one of the leading actors of the era, winning accolades as
one of the greatest Shakespearean actors of his day. This image,
taken by Brady around 1864, utilizes the Carte-de-Viste process, but more
importantly tells the relationship between the estranged actor and his
only child, daughter Edwina. A year prior to the taking of this image,
Booth's wife dies leaving Edwina behind with only her father to care for
her.9 Brady images this relationship quite well in this
picture, with she leaning into her father, and he showing an expressionless
look, but one that shows intelligence and character. Brady may have
been trying to capture the stern qualities of a father, as well as the
motherly attributes Edwin might have needed in order to raise his daughter
on his own. She clings to him like a young child to her mother, and
he understandably accepts her.*
Booth's life after the death of his wife, was, like many of the plays' he starred in, a tragic one. On April 14, 1865, his older brother would assassinate President Lincoln at Ford's theater, driving him into retirement. Years later, he would re-enter the theater life at Winter Garden in New York under great distress thanks to many death threats, but that stint would also be short lived when a severe fire brought the curtain down once again on Booth. Finally, on June 7, 1893, Edwin booth died of a brain ailment. During his funeral it is said, Ford's Theater collapsed and fell killing twenty people.10
Other famous Brady Carte-de-Viste images include Stephen Douglas, Anne Dickinson, Jefferson Davis, and Adele Cutts Douglas.
Brady would become more famous
every day as each year passed by. But it was in 1860, that much of
how history sees Brady would change. The Civil War not only changed
Brady's camera angle, but the subject as well. His reputation as
a master photographer would change as well, for he would now and forever
more be seen as a master of photographic journalism. His pictures
would no longer show, but now tell. They would tell us all about
the American Civil War, 1860-1865, and they would form the way in which
we remember it still today.
"A Spirit in my feet said 'GO' and I went."
In 1860, The American Civil War became one of
the first wars ever documented by the camera. The stories that were
being told of how gruesome the fighting was between the Union and Confederate
Armies were now being told not by only by word of mouth, but by the photograph
as well. Much of what America learned, and continues to learn
today, about the war, is aided by the many pictures taken of it.
Many of the images that have been left behind for historians to interpret
were taken by Mathew Brady, who risked great fortune to document the war.
Many of his closest relatives and friends advised the blinding photographer
not to go, but he saw the need to turn his lens to a different subject.
With the help of a traveling unit, which included many photographers and
aides such as Gardener and Timothy O'Sullivan, Brady set out to copy onto
film what many had been previously only hearing about. His intention
to capture the war on film brought it to the home front very powerfully,
and many of the pictures illustrated the horrors, truths and realities
of the entire war.
I think that Brady attempted to capture these realities in many ways. He remained loyal to individual imaging, yet turned his attentions and subjects to military leaders, and individuals involved within the war. He photographed many different people, ranging from Confederate General R. E. Lee, to abolitionist Frederick Douglas. His efforts were entirely concentrated on individuals who were either inspired by or involved with the war. Brady took pictures of the dead at all battlefields, to illustrate what the killing looked like to those who have not had the displeasure of seeing such a sight. These pictures hit home the hardest, for both their graphic nature and extreme content.
Battalions, Troops, and Casual Life
(Click on all pictures for larger images)
|James River, Va. Officers of the U.S.S. Monitor grouped by the turret||
Fort Pulaski, Ga. The "Beauregard" gun
|Portrait of Lt. John Chanite, Maine regiment|
|Brandy Station, Va. Troopers of Co. D, 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry (2d Division, Cavalry Corps||District of Columbia. Officers and men of Company F, 3d Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, in Fort Stevens||
Fort Brady, Va. Three officers of the 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery
Brady was a complete photographer. He didn't
let his own emotions enter into his subjects, created a biased image, nor
did he concentrate on one aspect of the war over certain others.
That is to say, he felt that capturing every aspect of the war was essential
in bringing the real story home. Books and films surrounding the
war show pictures ranging from scenes of death to scenes of beauty.
He captured it all, focusing on telling the entire story, rather than an
The three images in the above table illustrate well how Brady kept all these aspects as a part of a higher whole. The hundreds of pictures we see of ordered battalions and units show more than just a group of men. Brady would shoot these groups because they embraced the human element. The pictures of the ranks shows the pride in the men's faces: the lengths they would go for one another. Brady captures faces extremely well, in these pictures of unit battalions. There are hundreds of different images of random battalion cavalries, but the one thing they all have in common as can be seen is the stoicism in the faces of each soldier. Directed by Brady or other photographers, the possibility of each to dictate to each group the same exact details on how to stand and show themselves is almost impossible. It might be hard to conclude that all these men felt the same passions about war, but it is easy to see the way in which they look at us. Brady's pictures show this as well, but we get the notion that much of what is seen is seen through Brady's eyes.
Brady's group portraits show us more than just the group itself. It's as if he's trying to give us an idea of who these men were, and why they were there. Their order and discipline in the image tells us that Brady wanted them to look like true American heroes, who fight because they want to defend their beliefs. How can this be deduced? The images of Union regiments compared to those of Confederate are not all that different. In what they are wearing, there is a difference, but in what they are doing there isn't any. Both groups are fighters. Both groups are willing to die for their cause, representing an equality in his process. That is, he took pictures of both sides, and in doing so he showed that the two sides had more in common than might be actually recognized.
Brady was able to capture the human element as well in many images which showed soldiers outside of a formal setting, either relaxing, eating or other daily activities which might not have been considered important. To Brady however, they illustrated reality.
This image is a very famous one, of three confederate soldiers, captured by union forces at Gettysburg, 1863. What makes this image so real is the positions held by the three men. Presumably, Brady instructed them to gather so he could photo them, and in doing so the prisoners 'posed' in a way that gives us a good idea of how they wanted us to see them. Brady captures this. The soldier on the far right has his hands up against his chest, exhibiting himself in a manner that makes him look like a captured, but proud Confederate supporter. I think it tells us a lot about the mentality of the Confederate soldier as well as Brady's ability to recognize a story and capture it in film. There are many other images like this as well, taken to presumably capture pure reality, s well as the soldier's innocence.
The above images all depict life outside of the actual battle, but
show scenes of the war that we might not necessarily have seen before.
They are simply pictures of the men eating, resting, building a bridge,
etc. These pictures help to give further reference for historians
as to what actually took place. As stated before, they are images
"Brady has shown more pluck
than many of the officers and soldiers...he went...with his sleeves tucked
up and his big camera directed upon every point of interest on the field...this
collection is the most curious and interesting we have ever seen.
The groupings of entire regiments and divisions, within a space of a couple
of feet square, present some...considering the circumstances under which
they were taken, amidst the excitement, the rapid movements...there is
nothing to compare with them."
-Excerpt from Humphrey's Journal-
Brady's first taste of the actual battle came
on July 21, 1861 at Manassas, Virginia at the First Battle of Bull Run.
There Brady saw the first scenes of the war; the first of the actual fighting;
and the first of many deaths. Many of the images taken of this battle
depict mainly the area known as Bull Run, as well as scenes of destroyed
which fell during the actual fighting. (image)
The outcome of the battle was a harrowing defeat of the Union Army, and proved to Union Generals that laying claim to the Confederate stronghold Richmond would not be as easy as they previously may have thought, including Brady. To his surprise, the Union failed to reach Richmond, where he had hoped to photograph to possibly illustrate the sights of an overwhelming Union victory. Brady says of the experience:
"I went to the first battle of Bull Run with two wagons. . . We stayed all night at Centreville; we got as far as Blackbourne's Ford; we made pictures and expected to be in Richmond the next day, but it was not so, and so our apparatus was a good deal damaged on the way back to Washington."11
30,000 Union men were either killed or wounded at Bull Run, and along with the fortunate few who were left to flee for their lives back to Washington D.C. was Brady, who had with him the only recorded photographic account of the battle. His first of many 'war-scenes' made it back to D.C. and to his studios to tell the story of the battle, and to help cement upon Brady the label 'photojournalist.' Dorothy Kunhardt, author of Mathew Brady and His World, says this of Brady and his images of Bull Run;
"Along with the wounded and fleeing, Brady made his dusty way back to the capital, bringing with him enough photographic evidence of the broken bridges and pock-marked forests to astound the people of Washington."12
Humphrey's Journal, one of the few newspapers to ever get close enough to interview Brady, also documented Brady's resourcefulness at Bull Run:
"The public are indebted to Brady of Broadway, for numerous excellent views of 'grim-visaged war.' He has been in Virginia with his camera, and many spirited are the pictures he has taken. His are the only reliable records of the fight at Bull Run."13
"Be sure you put your feet in the right place, then stand firm"
352 Penna Ave & Wash.
I have repeated calls every hour in the day for your photograph and would regard it as a great favour if you could give me a sitting to day so that I may be able to exhibit a large picture on the 4th. If you cannot, call today. Please call at your earliest convenience
M. B. Brady
There have been many pictures taken of Abraham
Lincoln, and in most of them we see one recurring feature in the linear
motion of his lips. He's neither smiling, nor is he frowning.
He shows us a picture of a true leader, one who literally has the weight
of a nation upon his shoulders, and the state of the union depends upon
his every move. He is seen as the most admirable of men, almost mythical
when we relate him to his achievements. Brady captures Lincoln very
well, at a variety of times, each time he seems to look eerily the same.
Even in images taken after the war. On February 23rd, 1861, Lincoln
came to Brady's studio on Pennsylvania Avenue to have his inauguration
portrait taken. George Story, an artist who shared residence in the
same building as Brady who often helped him with 'great' individuals, was
asked by Brady to come help him with the imaging of Lincoln. His
words regarding Lincoln after the event relate a great deal to what we
can see in most of the photos taken of Lincoln:
"He did not utter a word, and he seemed absolutely indifferent to all that was going on about him; and he gave the impression that he was a man overwhelmed with anxiety, fatigue and care."16
Lincoln has been hailed as one of the greatest Presidents
of this nation's history, and in many of the pictures we see of him, it's
hard not to detect a sense of leadership in both his look and posture.
They relate to the way he handled this country during the war in that we
can assume that the same type of temperament he shows in a still image
is the same type of way he handled policies. Brady and Gardener capture
him well, and it's hard to say that they were in competition to produce
the 'better' image of Lincoln because of the distinct similarities in all
of the shots taken. Even in a 'casual' setting, if there was such
a thing for the President, he shows the same types of emotions. These
images were taken by Gardener, but they help to show the many similarities
in all Lincoln snapshots. He is forever motionless in these images,
and this is a quality which we can see in the Lincoln Monument today.
Photographers must be credited with giving Lincoln this type of recognition,
as well as with immortalizing him through the images they took of him,
almost frozen in time. Brady's portraits helped make Lincoln President.
"The pictures most heart rendering to make
yet technically the easiest were those of the dead; for such battlefield
coverage, motion was not a factor. "
Following the Union defeat at Bull Run, Brady
ventured down to a small river source in Maryland called Antietam
Creek. There Brady would witness one of the deadliest battles
of the Civil War, as well as one of the worst battles to ever take place
on American soil. Here many Americans, both of Union and confederate
blood would meet there demise. Brady and his men took many images
at Antietam, and they were so widely acclaimed that he opened up an exhibit
in one of his New York Studios entitles "The Dead of Antietam."17
Here he displayed his many photos of the war, and gave to his viewers
their first taste of what images of the deceased actually looked like.
In a way, it was like a 'photographic culture shock' for the public, because
they showed mixed reviews once the exhibit went on display.
The images of the dead further beat the reality of the war into the minds of the people, and it showed what was happening to the men who left home to fight for their country. Brady's exhibits and the pictures were a painful reminder of what was happening on the battlefields.
Capturing war in images is mostly about combat. And how we view those images of combat, the images of the dead, is how we interpret it. It's also how the photographer interprets it.
"Combat, no matter how peripheral, how Pyrrhic, how purposeless, is the heart of war. It is what young boys glamorize, old men remember, poets celebrate, governments rally around, women cry about, and soldiers die in. It is also what photographers take pictures of."18
Pictures of the dead, no matter how chilling, or vivid in content, tell of the grim realities that war brings. Brady, when capturing the dead on the battlefields, not only captured this reality, but historically left a foundation for all historians to base their research and studies on how powerful of a war the Civil War was. His images of the dead were so personal, so frighteningly real, that he actually scared many people, and after the war was over, hardly anyone wanted to ever look at a Brady war image again, because it reminded them of what had happened to their sons, brothers, neighbors, etc.
|Click for larger image.|
During days between the fighting, officials
would agree on truce days, so the dead could be buried. Photographers
used these days to roam the battlefields and image the scenes of the dead
while not being under constant fire. They would take pictures of
the relatively 'new' dead, and what a tribute it is to their abilities
to take images of what must have been possibly the most gruesome images
that they had ever witnessed.
The result of Brady's dead, and the weight that
they carried with the American people would eventually carry Brady to his
demise. The pictures of Antietam and Little Round Top were very graphic,
and after Appomattox no one wanted to see them anymore. The American
public no longer wanted to be reminded of the war that split the nation
in half, and no longer did they want to see images of the young dead sprawled
across battlefields, lifeless and innocent. The images proved that,
and no matter how powerful they are today in alluding to the real Civil
War, they were rejected by those who once demanded them from Brady and
others when the war started. What started out as a 'photographic
fad' became a national nightmare, and no one wanted to be reminded of the
"Let him who wishes to know what the war is look at this series of illustrations. These wrecks of manhood thrown together in careless heaps or ranged in ghastly rows for burial were but alive yesterday.... Many people would not look through this series. Many, having seen it and dreamed of its horrors, would lock it up in some secret drawer."26
Since no one wished to be reminded of the war after its close, Brady's galleries began to fail. With no one to buy his prints, he began to accumulate a large debt. He also had to pay the men he had hired to help him image the war, as well as to pay the companies whom he purchased his equipment from prior to leaving, most of which was on credit. He was out of money. The war and its images had hit home in a way that was too much for the public, and after its close Brady received no help from them or the government, who was busy now with an assassination and reconstruction. Brady's collection was soon forgotten, and so too was he, the man who had captured a war.
His later years in life are quite tragic, for he fell into a deep state of despair when he was forced to sell his negatives to help pay off debts, and in 1887 when his wife Julia passed. He would live for almost another decade, poor and blind, with no real friends or family to help him through his post-war conditions. He died on April 15th, alone, broke and blind in the alms ward of New York Presbyterian Hospital, just fifteen days prior to an exhibit in his honor at Carnegie Hall, which would display his many war images and plate negatives.26
In an ironic end, the event which had made Brady famous as a war historian, had driven him into the depths of bankruptcy and destitution. Many argue that the war had made him, and that it had also killed him as well. I would agree with half of this assertion, because its Brady's talents behind the camera which made him, the war was simply a contribution to his abilities. He was 'made' well before a shot was ever fired. His talents in still imaging were captured in the earlier years leading up to the war, and his reputation as a master photographer was well established before the one of 'photojournalist'. Yet the war was his fame. It's where his efforts will be remembered, it's where we will think of Brady as achieving greatness. Maybe that's what war does. Its impact is stronger than its theme, and what we remember can be related to what we are seeing. If that's the case, then much of what we are 'seeing' of the Civil War should be attributed to Brady, and the way he helps us remember it.
(*Note- All Interpretations of images are presumed
and collaborated by said author, PLW III)
(*Note- Images either borrowed from Library of Congress, Online version of Brady's Miniature Gallery, or in works from authors cited below.)
1. Hobart, George. Masters of Photography:
Mathew Brady. (London: Macdonald & Co.) 1984.
2. ibid., 2
4. Hobart, 2.
5. Library of Congress URL: www.loc.gov
6. Hobart, 6.
8. Meredith, Roy. The World of Mathew Brady. (Los Angeles: Brooke House.) 1976. p. 5-6
10. Meredith, 41.
11. Hobart, 5.
12. Dorothy Kunhardt, Mathew Brady and His World. (Time-Life: Canada.) 1977. p. 200.
13. ibid. 60.
14. Hobart, 6.
15. Kunhardt, 58.
16. Meredith, 83.
17. Ken Burns. The Civil War 1994.
18. Moeller, Susan. Shooting War. (New York: Basic Books.) 1989.
19. ibid., 24.
20. Kunhardt, 248.
21. Moeller, Susan. Excerpt from The New York Times Can be found on Civil War Documentary, film 3.
22. Moeller, 25.
23. Kunhardt, 248.
25. Kunhardt, 225.
26. Excerpt taken from Oliver Wendell Holmes, after searching through the the dead of Antietam for his son. Hobart, 7.
26. Hobart, 8.