Darwin's Evolution: Image Gallery

Introduction: From Aristotle to Erasmus Darwin

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Pliny the Elder died on Vesuvius (N.I.H., public domain) - - - -Darwin's Fly-trap (Botanic Garden, 1794, author copy)


I. The Natural Historians: Linnaeus, Merian, Buffon, Cuvier, Catesby, Bartram, and Others

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Metamorphosis from The Aurelian (Moses Harris, 1766); Mark Catesby's Ivory-billed woodpecker, (Natural History of Carolina, 1731-43)

(From an English Edition of Buffon's System of Natural History, 1821)

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II. Venus Fly-traps, Sensitive Plants, and the Great Chain of Being

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Student natural history drawing, 1829, Dickinson Special Collections - - - - - - - - - - - Mimosa by Kitagawa Sosetsu

"The Great Chain of Being" (From Didacus Valades, Rhetorica Christiana, 1579)


III. Erasmus Darwin and "Organic life beneath the ocean waves"

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Wordsworth and Shelley were directly influenced by Charles Darwin's grandfather: (Curtis, Botanic Garden, 1789), (author's collection)

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The portly country doctor (E. Darwin by Joseph Wright of Derby) and his first statement of evolution (author's collection)


IV. Luigi Galvani, Giovanni Aldini and Electric Romanticism

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Galvani portrait (public domain); Galvani's frog-legs laboratory (De Viribus electricitatus, 1791)

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Galvani's nephew, Giovanni Aldini, extended experiments to cows and human cadavers (two volumes on Galvanism, 1803, 1819)


V. Amphibious Thinking and Our Reptile Relatives

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Amphibians from Goldsmith's Animated Nature (1774); Frog-fish of Surinam (Universal Magazine, 1776)


Rhinoceroses seemed like creatures from another world; top (Goldsmith, Animated Nature, 1774), bottom (Barr's Buffon, 1792)

Crocodiles and alligators seemed like dinosaurs come to life (Goldsmith, History of Earth and Animated Nature, 1774)


VI. Monkeys, Men and Man-Apes

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Captive mangabey in Jardine's Natural History of Monkeys (1833); Familial gorillas, Wood's Natural History (1898)

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A very human-looking monkey's paw from Jardine (1833)

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"Man of the Woods" (Orangutan) in Oliver Goldsmith, Animated Nature (1774) and humanized monkey skeleton from Buffon (1792)


VII. Global Exploration and New Forms of Nature

Maria Sibylla Merian, Metamorphosis of the Insects of Surinam, 1705

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Chief Mouina from David Porter's Journal (1814); Bartram described a range of strange North American species (Travels, 1791)


VIII. Geological Poets and the Fossil Record

The fossil record added confusion to speculation about the biological past, J. G. Heck Iconographic Encyclopedia, 1851

Mary Anning with the first plesiosaur near the Lyme regis cliffs in Dorset; images from Discovering Fossils, Dan Quinsey, 2006


IX. Charles Darwin Goes to the Galapagos

H.M.S. Beagle painted by Owen Stanley in 1841

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Darwin's finches as he depicted them; Darwin's giant tortoise from his Galapagos Journal (both in author copy, 1890)

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Galapagos marine iguana, the world's only ocean-going reptiles. (author photo); blue-footed boobies made Darwin laugh (author photo)


X: The Debate Begins: Separate Creation or the Origin of Species

Darwin portrait (public domain); Darwin's head on a chimpanzee's body ( Hornet magazine 1871)

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Thomas Henry Huxley, in Vanity Fair (1860) , captioned "Ape"; Huxley's Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature (1863)


Conclusion: Two Hundred Years of Darwinian Evolution

Gregor Mendel's pea-pods helped to explain precisely how evolution works; portrait, public domain, peas from the Album Benary (1876-93)


Audubon's eagle in Birds of America (1840) ; Judge Jones, "The Judge who Ruled for Darwin" (Scientists and Thinkers, 2006)

Shells, sea-urchin spines, fossils, shards of lava, bones from fish and birds are all crushed and combined to form colorful sand in the Galapagos Islands. Every living thing and nonliving thing returns its chemical and molecular parts to the natural cycle. (author photo)

---Ashton Nichols (2008)---