Dickinson in the Galápagos: January 2002-03

               Move to our updated 2003 website for more information

                                                          --please scroll down--

...
Here is the first landing we made in the Galápagos in 2002, on the island of Española, known for
     its sea lions, on this particular morning complete with sea lion pups and Darwin's finches.

Why is Dickinson traveling to the Galápagos?

One of the goals of a liberal arts education is to expose students to a variety of approaches to learning.  
Two of the seemingly most disparate of these learning styles are in the humanities and natural sciences.
The former uses a variety of competing approaches to understand our place in the world, whereas the latter
uses the scientific method. What is often not stressed are the commonalities in these approaches, in particular
the creative process. Just as a poet creates images and emotions in our mind, the scientist creates testable
hypotheses from observations. The epitome of this creative process was demonstrated by Charles Darwin
when he formulated his hypothesis of natural selection to explain microevolution. Darwin's hypothesis was
influenced by his grandfather's poetry on the origin of life, economic theory of competition in the market place,
geology's immense time and slow gradual change, as well as by the results of selective breeding to produce
more useful and beautiful organisms. Darwin synthesized all of these ideas with a grand creative leap when
he hypothesized that natural selection drives microevolution through differential reproductive success.

The goal of the Dickinson in the Galápagos program is to develop this creative process in the students. We will
do this by actually going to the place where Darwin made his grand creative leap and began the formulation of
his hypothesis: the Galápagos Islands. While in the Galápagos, students will keep a natural history diary of their
observations of the organisms and their interaction with the environment. These observations will then be used in
two classes back on the Dickinson campus to hone the process of natural history writing and to understand the
role of geology in evolutionary processes on the islands. These skills of creative thinking, clear concise writing, and
construction of testable hypotheses are skills that will be extremely useful to liberally educated students.

The courses we will take following our return from the Pacific are:

English 212: Writing About the Galápagos.
This class will begin with our journey to the Galapagos Islands in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Ecuador.
While in the archipelago, students will read a variety of articles and handouts related to Charles Darwin’s
explorations of the islands in the 1830s and to current Galápagos research. Students will keep a daily naturalist’s
journal while traveling. In the following semester, students will use their field journals as the basis for writing
exercises and essays designed to improve their skills as expository writers. The class will also read extracts
from Darwin’s Galápagos Journals and On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.

Geology 311: Geology and Evolution in the Galápagos
The Galápagos Islands had a profound impact on Darwin's developing ideas about coral reef development
and natural selection.  Following our field trip to the Galápagos, this course will investigate the islands' geology
(e.g., the relationships between volcanoes, marine animals, coral reefs, and limestone) and biology
(e.g., comparative anatomy, endemism, speciation, and extinction).  We will compare Darwin's original texts
to modern sources to see how well his ideas have survived.

Texts for these two spring semester classes will include:

Darwin, Edited by Appleman, A Norton Critical Edition

Galápagos Wildlife: A Visitors Guide, by David Horwell and Pete Oxford, Bradt/Globe Pequot Press

Darwin and the Science of Evolution by Patrick Tort, Discoveries/Harry Abrams

The Pocket Handbook (for writers), Second Edition, by Kirszner and Mandell, Thomson/Heinle


Galápagos by John Kricher, Smithsonian

All of the students who participate in this program will study the Galápagos Islands and experience nature
there as Darwin did. We will see one of the most remarkable natural  and ecologically sensitive sites
on earth,
islands
which
are home to species found nowhere else on the planet: giant  tortoises, marine iguanas, breeding
albatrosses, blue-footed boobies. Students will travel with a geology professor and an English professor and
will learn techniques of careful observation, record keeping, scientific method, nature writing, and creative as
well as critical thinking. We will snorkel with sea lions and reef sharks, climb volcanoes in tropical cloud-forests
filled with orchids, epiphytes, and countless species of birds, including Darwin’s revolutionary finches (13 species).
Our field study will also include three days in Quito, Ecuador, where will will explore a Spanish colonial city
located at an altitude of 9,000 feet, a trip to the equator itself--where we will stand with one foot in the northern
hemisphere and the other foot in the southern hemisphere--and visit an indigenous market in the high Andes.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Some web sites you may find useful as you plan for our trip:

http://www.mnh.si.edu/expeditions/galapagos/
A Smithsonian site created by Carole Baldwin. She will be doing deep sea exploration from a research vessel
this January. On her last expedition, she discovered creatures unknown to science on each of her dives.

http://pubs.nsta.org/galapagos/index.html
A wide ranging educational site for teachers and students. Spend some time surfing through its links.

http://www.rit.edu/~rhrsbi/GalapagosPages/NewGalapagos.html
Professor Robert Rothman's site from Rochester Institute of Technology. Professor Rothman is a
long-time traveler and researcher in the Galápagos. He offered advice on the planning for our course.

http://www.galapagosecuador.com/
The company that is organizing our expedition. It is perhaps the most well respected Ecuadorian
company for travel in and around the Galápagos.

http://www.galapagosecuador.com/english/galapagos/coral/coral.html
The boat we will be living on for eight days. Have a look at the staterooms and common areas.
We'll have classes on deck or in the lounges each evening.

http://abyayala.nativeweb.org/ecuador/otavalo/
The ancient market we will visit in the Andes. Be ready to bargain.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Now, additional pictures of what is in store--
these photos were all taken by Professors Key and Nichols during January of 2002:


These marine iguanas are the only ocean-going lizards in the world. They are found solely on these
islands and in the surf around them. Their colors--they are called Christmas lizards by the locals--are
the result of mineral pigments in their food. Birds are the only other class of animals that express the
colors of their diet directly in their pigmentation (i.e. their feathers). This is part of the evidence for
a clear evolutionary link between dinosaur reptiles and our current "dinosaurs": the birds.


Land tortoises on the Galápagos fill the ecological niche ordinarily occupied by large mammals.  
They were slaughtered by the thousands in earlier centuries. Now they are a protected species,
and numerous research groups are working to assure their long-term survival.


Several captive breeding stations provide nurseries for a variety of races of the giant tortoise.
 


The climate on the archipelago is remarkably varied, from very arid conditions at low altitude (above)
to tropical cloud forests (rain forests caused by cloud cover) higher up the volcanic slopes of many
of the islands.


Darwin only spent five weeks on these islands, but the observations he made, the notes he took,
and the conclusions he began to draw about natural selection have had a profound influence on
modern science and on humanity's view of its place in the natural world. Research into evolution,
natural selection, and speciation continues on the islands today. In addition, programs currently
underway work to preserve native plants and animals and insure the survival of threatened
Galápagos species.

...
A blue footed booby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .and a brown sandalled professor.


This picture was taken while standing on the equator, from which Ecuador gets its name. One foot
in the northern hemisphere, one foot in the southern: what a strange sensation!

...
Over 40% of all species here are unique to these islands. In the picture on the right you will notice one
of only 200 or so Galápagos hawks in existence. We saw two in four days.


Even the iguanas are tame. They have no natural predators, and they have not yet learned to be
afraid of humans.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GALAPAGOS: IMPORTANT INFORMATION
(provided by Kleintours, Quito, Ecuador)

LOCAL TIME IN THE ISLANDS
The local time in Galapagos is GMT –6 (ONE HOUR LESS THAN THE CONTINENT)

CLIMATE
In general, December to June are the warmest months. January to March can be hot and humid, but also mostly green at this time. July to November are cooler. The average year-round temperature is 24°C.

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE IN GALAPAGOS (FARENHEIT)                
              AIR                            WATER
              TEMPERATURE       TEMPERATURE
January    60 - 80                       71 – 74  
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE IN GALAPAGOS (CELCIUS)                
              AIR                             WATER
              TEMPERATURE         TEMPERATURE
January    16 - 27                         22 – 23   

WHAT TO BRING
Consider that the Galapagos Cruises are “nature seeking” cruises which include long walks, swimming, wet/dry landings, and other physical activities. Therefore, we advise you to bring comfortable breathable clothes, shorts, T-shirts, swimsuits and good hiking shoes are required to walk over the lava rock paths.

During the rainy season (from June to November) it is common to have a light rain called by locals “garua” and a raincoat or light jacket will be required for the evenings. Be advised that evening gowns and accessories are not necessary. At night/semiformal attire is advised.

To fully enjoy one of the sunniest and warmest spots of our planet, you should protect yourself with an effective sunscreen, a good hat with a brim, sunglasses, insect repellent, lip balm, eye drops, plastic bags for electronic equipment. Do not forget your camera, plenty of film and binoculars.

GETTING THERE
On the day before departure, either your guide or our operations department will reconfirm to you the picking up time at your hotel in order to go to the airport on time at the counter of TAME AIRLINES, to take the flight to Baltra airport in the Galapagos. Checking in time is 2 HOURS BEFORE DEPARTURE.

At the airport you will  be met by our Galapagos Representative who will have the roundtrip tickets  and vouchers for the ship.  You will also receive an identification that you need to put on your chest so you may be easily identified upon arrival at Baltra airport. You will be welcomed by our cruise staff who will collect the return airtickets from you as well as your vouchers for the cruise.  You will be then transferred from the airport to board the ship. Your luggage will be automatically placed at your assigned cabin.

Galapagos National Park Rules and Regulations

As part of the National Park´s regulations, a naturalist guide will accompany you during the whole visit to the islands. He will thoroughly inform you about what a visitor is allowed or not  to do. We need you to follow the rules in order to preserve the paradise you are enjoying for the future generations to come.
•    Do not remove or disturb any plant, rock or animal on the islands.
•    Be careful not to transport any live material to the islands or from island to island. Check your clothing for seeds and insects before disembarking the ship for shore.
•    Do not touch the animals.
•    Do not feed the animals.
•    Always remain on the path where designated.
•    Always remain with your guide where required.
•    Do not startle or chase any animal from its nest or resting place. Be extremely careful in and around breeding colonies.
•    Do not force your way through dense bush or thickets. This will destroy the plant life and seeds may become lodged on your       person.
•    Do not litter on land or from the vessel whilst at sea.
•    Do not buy souvenirs made from any native animal part, coral or plant except certain wood.
•    Do not write graffiti or deface rocks and plants on the islands.
•    Do not hesitate to show your conservationist attitude and explain to others the rules. Notify the National Park Service if you       see any damage being done.

ELECTRICITY ON BOARD
110 volts, 60 cycles AC (Coral & Coral II)

PURCHASES AND PAYMENTS
Bar and boutique expenses have to be settled in cash or traveller cheques the day before the end of our cruise. If you are going to pay with a credit card please inform the purser upon arrival. We honour all major credit cards.

SMOKING ON BOARD
It is forbidden to smoke inside the yacht. Smoking is allowed ONLY on the sun decks.  Please, never throw cigarette filters over-board.

RECOMMENDATIONS
•    When special medications needed, be sure to take enough quantity with you.
•    Our multilingual naturalists guides are able to provide you a complete information about the islands.  Do not hesitate to approach them.

SNORKELLING
Galapagos is a paradise for snorkellers!  If you do not have your own equipment, you may request it from the crew (or bring             your own).

Travel Plans
It is your responsibility to get to Philadelphia Airport two hours before our departure time of 12:01 p.m. on
January 6. Arrive at the airport no later than 10:00 a.m. You will need your passport, luggage, and any spending
money you require for the trip (Ecuador uses US dollars): We will be traveling with e-Tickets, so Professor Key
will provide you with your airline confirmation code and seating assignments at the December meeting. Students
should check with American Airlines on line for latest flight information as the time approaches.

On January 17, when we return, you will have two options. You can either be picked up in Philadelphia by family
members, or you can travel in a van back to Carlisle with Professors Nichols and Key. We will need to know as
soon as possible which option you prefer. We arrive back in Carlisle on a Friday. Dickinson classes start of Monday.
Dorm rooms will be available as of Friday night for your use. Professor Key will have storage space available over
January Break if you want to leave suitcases or other spring semester bags in Carlisle during our trip.

What to pack:

Pack as little luggage as possible for an 11-day trip. We recommend a rolling suitcase, with wheels
and a handle, plus a small day-pack for hikes and field work. Don’t lug a heavy suitcase or duffel bag.
You need to carry everything yourself, occasionally for some distance. Leave home jewelry, walkmans,
and anything that makes you look like a flashy American.

Required:
Passport (plus a Xerox copy of your passport)
Spending money plus meal money for three days (US Dollars)
day pack or fanny pack for day hikes
camera and film (for course work)
small flashlight (so you don’t disturb your roommate)
very good sunglasses plus a head strap (the sun is equatorial, you can burn in one hour)
extra reading glasses or contacts (if you wear them)
water bottle
washcloth
chap-stick or lip balm
sunscreen (at least 30 UV protection)
aspirin or ibuprofen
all of your own required or prescription medications
Pepto-Bismol tablets or liquid (anti-diarrheal medication)
sewing kit
extra toilet paper
small  towel
naturalist’s blank journal, plus pens, pencils and erasers
Xerox handout on Darwin (provided by Prof. Nichols before departure)
Galápagos Wildlife: A Visitor’s Guide by Horwell and Oxford (Dickinson bookstore)
Small measuring tape
Small magnifying glass
battery powered alarm clock

Suggested clothing:
2 pairs of shorts
rain poncho and hood/hat
1 pair trousers
1 pair jeans
2 long sleeve shirts
t-shirts
underwear and socks
sweater, light jacket, windbreaker
big hat  with big brim
2 bathing suits
good sneakers
good sandals (like Tevas)
lightweight hiking boots

Options:
sea-sickness medicine (if you are susceptible, although waters are generally calm)
ear plugs if you need them (the boat can be noisy)
Spanish language phrase book
binoculars
mask and snorkel if you plan to snorkel (fins and wetsuits will be provided).
Snorkel equipment is provided by the boat, but we advise bringing your own mask, if you plan to snorkel.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

For your safety, the following rules must be followed :
•    Listen carefully the guide’s instructions.
•    Stay together with the group of snorkellers.
•    If you do not feel comfortable in the water, always wear a life vest for your safety. You are also not required to snorkel.
Do not forget that currents can be treacherous in Galapagos.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Stay tuned for updates and more information.