1. Team: a small group of people with complementary
skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for common purposes, goals,
Types of teams:
Discussion 1: the differences between work group and work teams?
2. Characteristics of high-performing teams:
(1). Small size
Discussion 2: why the best work teams tend to be small
(2). Superior and complementary capability of members
(3). Properly matching people to various roles or functions
Discussion: Using Table 9.3 to discuss which functions have been realized and which have not in your group. Is there a fair distribution of roles?
(4). Shared commitment to common purpose
Example 2: Honda Accord design team: world car flexible enough to fit each major markets
(5). Specific, measurable, and realistic goals: deadlines, quantity, quality, costs.
Question: deadlines for group projects.
(6). Shared leadership: other than form leader, people take turns to lead.
Discussion 4: how to share leadership, what is the potential problem of shared leadership.
(7). Decision by consensus: open discussion to anyone's ideals, avoidance of formal voting, or easy compromises
Discussion 5: what is comparative advantage and disadvantage of decision by consensus?
(8). Open and effective communication: informal, face to face, free to express ideas and feelings, effective listening.
(9). High degree of cooperation and low degree of social loafing and free riding.
Discussion 6: what are the constraints of cooperation in the U.S. cultural and institutional environment?
(10). High degree of mutual trust
Trust: reciprocal faith in other's intentions and behavior
Discusion 7: how to promote mutual trusts among group members?
What is the strongest and weakest scores in your group, why, how to improve it?
3. Quality Circles: small groups of volunteers who strive to solve quality-related problems and to continuously improve products and processes.
10-12 shop-floor workers, 60-90 minutes each weak
Objective: continuous incremental improvement
Results: Japan -- very successful
Questions: why the US efforts of quality circle are less successful?
4. Self-managed teams: groups of 10-15 peoples who take on responsibilities of their former superiors
Example: Xerox, GE, Hewlett-Packard
Question: what are the good effects of self-managed teams, what are some possible bad effects?
5. Cross-functional teams: the synergy of knowledge, skills, and expertise
Discussion: argument for and against the use of teams