Individual Process and Behavior
Individual Differences in Organizations
Determinants of Individual Behavior
Culture: national, regional, organizational
Technology: task environment
Institution: profession, family, rules, routines, …
Organization: motivation, leadership, communication style, organizational
Personality: a relatively stable pattern of characteristics that defines
a person’s identity and influences his/her behavior
How people relate to others, think, act, feel, judge, and make decisions
1. Trait Theory: In order to understand individuals, we ought
to break down behavior patterns into a set of observable traits
Extraversion: outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive
Aggreeableness: trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft hearted.
Conscientiousness: dependable, responsible, achievement oriented, persistent
Emotional stability: relaxed, secure, unworried. EQ?
Openness to experience: intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad minded
Patterns of personality:
The authoritarian personality: strict, harsh, critical, inconsistent, low
self-esteem emotionally repressed.
Machiavellianism: the desire to manipulate other people for one’s own gain
by using whatever forms of deviousness and deception may be necessary.
The entrepreneurial personality: strong achievement motivation
Criticism: situational impact, changeability of personality
2. How Personality Forms
Psychodynamic Theory: emphasizes the unconscious determinants
of personality: id, ego, superego – people are driven by irrational forces
The Behaviorist Approach: people learn a particular response
to a particular stimulus in seek of positive consequences and in avoidance
of negative negative consequences. B.F. Skiner: people are driven by environment
Humanistic Theory: self-concept, self-actualization, and individual
growth as the basic drive for behavioral and personality change. Carl Rogers
3. Personality Characteristics in Organization
High self-monitor: try to produce positive reaction from others and
meet the expectations of others
Locus of control: internal vs. external
Self-esteem: positive feeling about oneself and self-worth. –general.
Self-efficacy: one’s belief and expectations about one’s ability to fulfil
a specific task effectively. –task-specific.
Self-monitoring: self-image vs. private reality; face-work vs. inner-feeling.
4. Jungian Theory of Personality and MBTI Personality Tests
Positive vs. negative affect: focus on positive aspects of self vs. negative
aspects of self.
(1). Information gathering style:
(2). Decision making style:
Sensing: gathering information through the five senses, emphasis
on concrete and specific facts (data and details), like rules, procedures.
Intuiting: gathering information through the "sixth sense" and focus
on possibility rather than facts, like visions, grand plans.
Thinking: making decision in a logical, objective fashion: analytic, clarity,
head, justice, rules. US:50%
Feeling: making decision in a personal, value-oriented way: subjective,
harmony, heart, mercy, circumstance.
(3). Sources of individual energy
(4). Orientation toward outside world
Extraversion: energized by interaction with people: outgoing, publicly
expressive, interacting speaks=>think, gregarious. 70% US population
Introversion: energized by self-reflection and thinking: quiet, reserved,
concentrating, think=>speaks, reflective.
Judging: preferring closure and completion in gathering information and
making decisions: structured, time oriented, decisive, organized.
Perceiving: preferring to explore more information and many alternatives