1. Group: two or more freely interacting
and interdependent individuals who have come together to achieve certain
Question 2: Is a crowd on the street corner listening to a concert a group?
2. Formal vs. Informal Groups
Informal social networks exert immense influence, which sometimes overrides
the formal hierarchy. Leadership goes beyond a person's formal position
into realms of informal, hidden, or unauthorized influence
Discussion 2: the function and dysfunction of informal group in the
The dysfunction of informal group:
The positive function of information group
(2). Storming: intragroup conflict and testing - what is my role here: resistance to constraints, norms, competing for agenda and leadership
(3). Norming: agreement on goals, roles, norms, constraints, structure,
and leaderships => increased group identity, mutual trust, and group cohesiveness
(4). Performing: how can I best perform my role, focusing on task fulfillment.
(5). Adjourning: prepare for disbandment.
4. Group Structure
(1). Formal leadership
(2). Roles: a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.
Major points: norms bear real consequences -reinforcement theory. What
is stated is not always true.
Group conformity: adjusting one's behavior to allign with the norms
of the group.
Discussion 5: why conformity?
(4). Status: A socially defined position or rank given to groups or
group members by others.
Discussion 6: Who has a high status in the college? Who has low? Why?
Discussion 7: who are much easier to conform to group norms, those with
high status or those with low status?
(5). Group size
Discussion 8: How group size affect group behavior?
Discusion 9: group size and the problem of social loafing, how to solve
(6). Group composition
Discussion 10: which group is better, heterogeneous groups or homogenous
groups, with regard to gender, personality, abilities, skills, and perspectives?
Key: synergy of knowledge, skills, abilities, and personalities.
Discusion 11: the advantage and disadvantage of cultural diversity
(7). Group Cohesiveness: Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group
Discusion 12: What factors contribute to group cohesiveness?
Discusison 13: Is group cohesiveness good or bad?
Key: group performance norms
Discussion 14: Examine the effectiveness of your group by using Table 9.1.
Discussion 15: Arguments and counter-arguments: Designing jobs around groups vs. around individuals