Independence in Latin America - A Chronology
1778-9 The Inconfidência Mineira, in Brazil (Tiradente’s plot).
1791 Slave revolt in Saint Domingue (Haiti). Leadership of Toussaint Louverture (d. 1803).
1804 Declaration of independence of Haiti by Jean-Jacques Dessalines.
1806 Miranda’s fail attempt to revolt, in Venezuela.
1807 Napoleon invades Portugal. Portuguese royal family and court move to Brazil.
1808 Abdication of Charles IV of Spain and
accession and abdication of Ferdinand VII.
Napoleon invades Spain and places brother Joseph I on Spanish throne. Crisis of
authority in the Spanish empire.
British expeditionary forces sent to the Iberian Peninsula. Emergence of Spanish
national junta. Viceroy deposed in New Spain by Audiencia of Mexico.
Arrival of Portuguese royal family to Rio de Janeiro.
1809 Risings in Buenos Aires and Quito.
1809-10 Autonomous governments (juntas)
established throughout Spanish America.
Father Miguel Hidalgo leads anti-Spanish revolt in Mexico (Grito de Dolores).
1810 Treaty of Navigation and Commerce between Great Britain and Brazil.
1810-14 Deliberations of the Cortes (Parliament) of Cadiz, in Spain.
1811 Defeat and execution of Father Hidalgo
in Mexico. Leadership passed to Morelos.
Achievement of independence of Paraguay (refusing to join Buenos Aires).
Venezuela declares independence.
French expelled from Portugal.
1812 Constitution of Cadiz, in Spain.
Spanish forces defeat first Venezuelan republic.
1813 French expelled from Spain.
Venezuela liberated by Bolívar. Royalist attack under José Boves.
1814 Ferdinand VII restored to the Spanish
throne (determination to end with revolts).
Chilean patriot government defeated by loyalist expedition from Peru.
1815 Final defeat of Napoleon.
Execution of Father Morelos in Mexico.
Spanish expedition under General Pablo Morillo restored royal control in
Venezuela and New Granada. Bolivar went into exile in Jamaica and Haiti.
The whole of Spanish America except for the River Plate is back in Spanish
hands. Brazil raised to the status of “kingdom,” constitutionally equal with
1816 United Provinces of South America (Argentina)
Bolívar landed with a small force in Venezuela.
1817 General José de San Martín
and the Army of the Andes invade Chile crossing
the Andes from Argentina. Battle of Chacabuco (12 February).
Brazil invaded Uruguay (Banda Oriental).
1818 Battle of Maipú (5 April): independence
Bolívar liberated part of Venezuela.
1819 Battle of Boyacá: liberation of
New Granada by Bolívar (Independence of
1820 Military revolt and liberal revolution
in Spain. In Portugal, military revolt,
adoption of Spanish liberal constitution of 1812, and declaration of constitutional
Six-month truce in Venezuela. Seaborne invasion of Peru by San
Martín, who is named Protector of Peru (1821).
1821 Battle of Carabobo (24 June): independence
Plan of Iguala in Mexico, and independence proclaimed by General Agustín
San Martín proclaimed independence of Peru. Spanish resistance in the highlands.
Return of João VI from Brazil to Portugal. Pedro as Prince Regent.
1822 Liberation of Quito by General Antonio
José de Sucre (Battle of Pichincha, 24
Confidential meeting of Bolívar and San Martín at Guayaquil (Ecuador). San
Martín’s withdrawal from independence movement.
Proclamation of Brazilian independence by Prince Pedro who became Emperor
1823 Monroe Doctrine.
1824 Campaigns of Bolívar and Sucre
in the Peruvian highlands. Battles of Junín
(August) and Ayacucho (December). Independence of Peru.
Federalist constitution in Mexico (Federal Republic, 1824-36).
Constitution of Brazil (monarchical, centralistst).
1825 Independence of Bolivia.
1826 Capitulation of last Spanish garrisons in South America.
1828 Effective independence of Uruguay after
war between Argentina and Brazil
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